In the case of river development in several advanced industrial countries such as America, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands, and several other European countries have experienced three decades / stages of river management, the stage of river development (River Development), the stage of experiencing and studying the impact of river development undertaken (Impact of River Development) and the stage of restoration or modernization of rivers that have been built previously (River Restoration). The concept of first stage river construction in general is pure hydraulic partial whereas the concept in the last stage is integral. To know more about the techniques in solution most appropriate to the erosion risk, you can see it through https://www.maccaferri.com/us/applications/hydraulic-works/.
River Construction with Pure Hydraulic Concept
The concept of pure hydraulic development does not take into consideration the ecological aspects and impacts that will occur after development. This method has changed the natural appearance and natural flow of the river into artificial trapezoidal shape with a relatively straight groove.
Some of the rivers constructed under the concept of pure hydraulics include river correction or stream normalization in the form of alignment, streamline, narrowing of the grooves, streamline simplification. Other activities are correction and river engineering on the construction of river transport, river regulation, cliff protection, dredging, and water level elevation. The construction of hydropower plans, dams, weirs, branches and inundation are included in the river correction and engineering activities. Most of the river cliffs and riverbanks or riverbanks are lost due to alignment, splintering, embankment construction, and confrontation.
Cliff protection is a river engineering to reinforce the cliffs of wave forces caused by ships or from stream currents. Indications of the negative impacts that arise from the pavement is the occurrence of ecological extinction of river border because the condition of the ecosystem habitat is totally changed. Plants along the banks of the removed rivers are replaced with empty stone pairs or fillings.
Constriction of the groove
The narrowing of the groove is the effort / development of the river that transforms the transverse river into a natural groove with a narrow technical look. Simplifying the profile of the river looks to be a trapezoidal or rectangular shape. This profile is created with the aim of ease maintenance, drain the area, clean the area, and also facilitate the hydraulic count. Negative impacts are reduced river flow retention, ecological damage to rivers, and decreased water conservation.
Dredging river flow
Dredging is a river engineering undertaken to improve the grooves and cross-sectional rivers for shipping. The indication of the impact of this dredging is the decrease of river channel resistance because it is usually done if the river is in the middle of the river with other river element river dunes including river bank vegetation.
River Construction with Ecohydraulics Concept
Ecohydraulics concept is the concept of integrative river development that is environmentally sound. In this concept, the river is defined as an open water system to which interactions between biotic and abiotic factors are flora and fauna on one side and hydraulics of water and sediments on the other side, as well as all human activities directly or indirectly connected with the river.